The school of medicine was inaugurated in 1827 as a 6-year study program in assembly of the Paris Medical School. The French doctor, Clot Bey, served as the president of the school. In 1837, the School of Medicine was moved from the Abou Zaabal suburb of Cairo to Garden City in 1837.

This new site was preferred not only because it could accommodate over 9000 beds and 300 students (at that time), but also because it was situated at the heart of Cairo, compared to the Abou Zaabal suburb, which lies on the outskirts of the Egyptian capital. That same year, the number of graduates had reached 430 doctors. Until 1848, the faculty of medicine had graduated 800 doctors.

When Abbas Pasha came to rule Egypt, he tried to demolish all that was French following the British councillor’s advice. As a result, Clot Bey resigned in 1849 and was succeeded by Dr. Duvigneau, followed by Peron Bey and then Shafi Bey, who was the first Egyptian president of the school.

When Khedive Ismail came to rule, the school again progressed rapidly by appointing its second Egyptian director Mohamed Ali El-Bakli Pasha.

In 1904 Naguib Mahfouz Pasha was appointed as an anaesthetist at Kasr El Aini hospital. As there was no such thing as a department of obstetrics or gynaecology at Kasr El Aini hospital, Mahfouz started a weekly gynaecological outpatient clinic. This turned out to be such a success that two whole wards were soon dedicated to obstetrical and gynaecological patients, and so the first department of obstetrics and gynaecology in Egypt came into existence. Mahfouz acquired much experience in dealing with difficult labour, partly from an agreement that he had struck with the medical officers who delivered women in their homes: whenever they faced a difficult labour, the medical officers would call Mahfouz into attendance. For his part, he would attend to the patient’s house and help them deal with the most complicated cases without charging a fee. During the fifteen years to come, Mahfouz attended about two thousand women with difficult labour in their own homes. During this time, he recalls sleeping no more than two nights a week in the comfort of his own home. One of the children that Naguib Mahfouz delivered after a difficult labour, was named after him in 1911. This child later became the laureate of the Nobel prize in literature, the famous novelist Naguib Mahfouz.

In 1925, the school of medicine was incorporated into the Egyptian university and was named the “Faculty of Medicine”. The faculty was ready for graduating doctors with the degree of Bachelor of Arts in medicine and surgery, after a study period of five and a half years. The faculty was now capable of granting a doctorate in medicine.

In 1927, it was decided that a new hospital consisting of 1200 beds and a modern medical school should be established. King Fouad laid the foundation of the new faculty and its hospital on December 16, 1928.

The advancement and expansion continued throughout the following years by establishing different units that were both scientifically distinguished and technically equipped with the latest modern instruments and devices